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Corrosion of Embedded Ferrous Metals in Woods

Timber is the most widely utilised natural materials in human history. It is a renewable material and readily available. Ferrous metal fasteners and fixtures are often used in the timber structure. They are generally reliable and maintenance free.  However, the pre-mature corrosion failures are identified in the history [1].  Field experience and test even suggested higher corrosion risk for outdoor applications [2]. If not attending carefully, it will lead to serious consequence.  Corrosion scientists also believe that wood provides a corrosive environment through permeable structure acting as an electrolyte sponge.  Recent research is not only focusing on understanding the corrosion…
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Corrosion Failure Investigation-Case Study

The presentation of Wayne D. Niemeyer ( 2nd case starting from 17:00)  has demonstrated the importance of understanding of process and production chemistry for the corrosion root cause analysis(RCA). This principle is prompted by ASTM G161  Standard Guide for Corrosion-Related Failure Analysis The most important observation from this case is to determine the chemistry of fluid not only  from  normal production, but also from upset stage. This could be a challenge in certain plant/process due to cost-saving practice by minimising “unnecessary” monitoring. RCA may run into the dead end without weekly lubricant sample been analysed. The final conclusion was leaking of…
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Metal Dusting: recent progress and industrial experience

The metal dusting is one of major failure mechanisms of equipment in producing process of hydrogen, ammonia, and syngas, as well as methanol reforming.  Although it has been recognized for the decades, there are still controversies in its mechanism.  With the recent development in metal dusting research, industries are having better understanding and may develop practical approaches to combat this type of failure. In this report, the recent research of metal dusting mechanism is summarized. It is reasonable to group these mechanisms in 3 types per Szakálos’ proposal: Type 1: decomposition of metastable carbides (e.g. cementite), Type 2: decomposition of…
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Book Review: Energy Institute’s “Guidelines on sand erosion and erosion-corrosion management”

Energy Institute (EI) “Guideline on sand erosion and erosion-corrosion management” provides a comprehensive summary on erosion and erosion-corrosion management practice in oil and gas industry. In this guideline, erosion has been defined as e a particle impact on a surface, removing a small amount of material. For ductile material, micro-machining is the major mechanism, while for brittle materials flake of material by micro-crack joining is the mechanism.  Erosion-corrosion is defined as an interaction between corrosion and erosion. The particle removes the protective layer rather than parent material itself, by this, the corrosion process is accelerated. Only carbon steel, low alloy steel and 13…
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Adenosine Testing and its Interpretation in Oil and Gas Field Microbial Status

Microorganisms can cause multiple threats in oil and gas production (EFC 9 ), injection and fracturing operations. Those threats range from production downtime due to microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) downhole and on surface equipment, to formation souring, as well as flow disruption caused by overgrowth of biomass in flow lines ((EFC29 ). Adenosine analysis, particularly ATP field tests  (NACE, TM0212) (NACE, TM0194), have been introduced into oil and gas for microbial status assessment. It facilitates a fast field screening Test for microbial status  comparing to the labour intensive and time consuming culturing techniques. However, the challenge is on results interpreting. Understanding the…
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