Chemical Treatment

Technically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Coal Seam Gas Production – A Review

Coal seam gas (CSG) is an unconventional gas production process as global demand for cleaner energy. It is important to understand the inherent radionuclides in CSG and their enhancing mechanisms for better naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) management. The enrichment of such radionuclides is a potential risk to health and environmental exposure.  This review endeavours to explore the sources of NORM, as well as potential technical enhancement routes for these radionuclides and their progenies in CSG production.

Naturally Occurred Radioactive Materials (NORMS) in Oil and Gas Production

Excerpt from Austrialina Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Aency. (2008). Safety Guide Radiation protection series No.15 Management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) Austrialina Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Aency. (2008). Safety Guide Radiation protection series No.15 Management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) . The decay chain starting with 222Rn can be conveniently grouped into two: • The short-lived radon decay products 218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi and 214Po have a collective half-life of approximately 30 minutes, which means that they will grow in to a stream containing just 222Rn within 30 to 60 minutes; if separated from the 222Rn they…
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Corrosion of Embedded Ferrous Metals in Woods

Timber is the most widely utilised natural materials in human history. It is a renewable material and readily available. Ferrous metal fasteners and fixtures are often used in the timber structure. They are generally reliable and maintenance free.  However, the pre-mature corrosion failures are identified in the history [1].  Field experience and test even suggested higher corrosion risk for outdoor applications [2]. If not attending carefully, it will lead to serious consequence.  Corrosion scientists also believe that wood provides a corrosive environment through permeable structure acting as an electrolyte sponge.  Recent research is not only focusing on understanding the corrosion…
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Book Review: Energy Institute’s “Guidelines on sand erosion and erosion-corrosion management”

Energy Institute (EI) “Guideline on sand erosion and erosion-corrosion management” provides a comprehensive summary on erosion and erosion-corrosion management practice in oil and gas industry. In this guideline, erosion has been defined as e a particle impact on a surface, removing a small amount of material. For ductile material, micro-machining is the major mechanism, while for brittle materials flake of material by micro-crack joining is the mechanism.  Erosion-corrosion is defined as an interaction between corrosion and erosion. The particle removes the protective layer rather than parent material itself, by this, the corrosion process is accelerated. Only carbon steel, low alloy steel and 13…
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