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Technically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Coal Seam Gas Production – A Review

Coal seam gas (CSG) is an unconventional gas production process as global demand for cleaner energy. It is important to understand the inherent radionuclides in CSG and their enhancing mechanisms for better naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) management. The enrichment of such radionuclides is a potential risk to health and environmental exposure.  This review endeavours to explore the sources of NORM, as well as potential technical enhancement routes for these radionuclides and their progenies in CSG production.

Naturally Occurred Radioactive Materials (NORMS) in Oil and Gas Production

Excerpt from Austrialina Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Aency. (2008). Safety Guide Radiation protection series No.15 Management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) Austrialina Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Aency. (2008). Safety Guide Radiation protection series No.15 Management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) . The decay chain starting with 222Rn can be conveniently grouped into two: • The short-lived radon decay products 218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi and 214Po have a collective half-life of approximately 30 minutes, which means that they will grow in to a stream containing just 222Rn within 30 to 60 minutes; if separated from the 222Rn they…
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Internal lining testing methods against depressurisation: ISO 15741 vs NACE TM0184

Contents ISO 15741, Annex C NACE TM 0185 Coating type Liquid epoxy as internal coating Plastic coating Objects Steel pipes and fittings Tubular good Media Non-corrosive gas phase;  nitrogen Corrosive media ( H2S) and /or Chloride solution; hydrocarbon phase DFT 60~ 100 μm (4.3.3) Not specified temperature Not specified Elevated temperature required Pressurizing system Ramping 1 bar/min Continuous monitoring Depressurizing rate Release pressure rapidly ( no more than 5 min) Cool to 93oC,  and depressurized at a uniform rate to ATM within 15~ 30 mins Testing panel Type I : 100 mm x 50 mmx 1 mm Type II: 100…
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Electrical Short Pipeline Potential Measurement and its Implication in Pipeline CP Management Practice

This is a paper published in Corrosion Management Magazine ( September 2018, issue 145). It can be accessed from IoCC website. The most important performance indicator for cathodic protection (CP) is the structure-to-electrolyte potential. In most of coated on-shore pipeline, the resistance between the reference electrode and the pipe-to-soil surface boundary is too significant to be ignored.  The IR drop caused by CP current is a measurement error. It is stipulated in many CP standards that IR component to be evaluated and excluded while assess the pipe-to soil potential performance in pipeline integrity management. For a well-coated pipeline, the most…
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